"iTunes could not connect to the iPhone because an invalid response was received from the device"
I was pretty confident the phone wasn't the issue as it had successfully sync'd with another computer - I tried the following steps first which did not fix the issue;
- Different USB/lightning cable
- Different USB port
- Rebooted computer
- Rebooted iPhone
- Ensured iPhone wasn't locked when connecting
- Removed iPhone device from device manager
What ended up fixing the issue in the end was uninstalling and re-installing iTunes on the computer.